U tube manometer solved problems pdf

U tube manometer solved problems pdf

u tube manometer solved problems pdf

As I write this, over a hundred hours of content is being uploaded to YouTube. Every month, over a billion people from across the world — nearly half the worldwide internet population — will land on YouTube to watch film trailers, fail compilations and, of course, cat videos.

Despite its popularity, YouTube does have its share of problems. This article will try to find answers some of these problems.

If you instead want to learn i soci da a a b to create amazing YouTube videos instead, you should check out this course on video production and marketing. Some of the issues include:. There is no single solution to all these problems.

Most of the time, the culprit is either your browser, Adobe Flash, or specific browser settings. Follow the steps given below one by one to solve this problem:. The easiest way to solve this problem is to simply refresh the browser page.

Most of the time, the video would play back fine after a refresh. Some problems arise due to background processes running in the browser. Restarting stops these processes and gives you a clean slate to run YouTube.

Use a tool like WhatBrowser. I highly recommend using either Chrome or Firefox. Cache refers to a repository of data that helps web browsers display web pages faster. For example, if you visit Google. This way, instead of downloading these files from the web server, the browser can serve them from the hard drive itself, which is much faster. Cookies are little pieces of code used to track your online behavior.

Contrary to popular belief, not all cookies are used for nefarious purposes; some cookies can actually improve your online experience. Over time, both the cache and cookies can bloat over and affect browser performance. This is why it is recommended that you clear your cache and cookies regularly.

In the pop-up window, select Cookies and other site and plug-in dataand Cached images and files. It is also a good idea to select Hosted app data. Click on the Clear browsing data button. Restart the browser and check if the video plays properly now. If it still fails to play, jump to step 5. Want to become a YouTube expert? Check out this course on producing and marketing videos that attract tons of traffic! Flash is the technology powering a lot of interactive elements on web pages.

Updating Flash player can often solve most common YouTube playback problems. This will show your current Flash version and whether your browser is set to update Flash automatically. In this case, you may see the following message on the Adobe Flash player download website:. Once Flash is installed, restart your browser and check if the problem persists. If it does, jump to step no. JavaScript is a scripting language used to control most common interactive elements on a web page.If you limp into a gas station with a nearly flat tire, you will notice the tire gauge on the airline reads nearly zero when you begin to fill it.

In fact, if there were a gaping hole in your tire, the gauge would read zero, even though atmospheric pressure exists in the tire.

Why does the gauge read zero? There is no mystery here. Tire gauges are simply designed to read zero at atmospheric pressure and positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric.

Similarly, atmospheric pressure adds to blood pressure in every part of the circulatory system.

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But atmospheric pressure has no net effect on blood flow since it adds to the pressure coming out of the heart and going back into it, too. What is important is how much greater blood pressure is than atmospheric pressure.

Blood pressure measurements, like tire pressures, are thus made relative to atmospheric pressure. In brief, it is very common for pressure gauges to ignore atmospheric pressure—that is, to read zero at atmospheric pressure. We therefore define gauge pressure to be the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure.

u tube manometer solved problems pdf

Gauge pressure is positive for pressures above atmospheric pressure, and negative for pressures below it. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure.

Unit 3-Fluid Mechanics

In fact, atmospheric pressure does add to the pressure in any fluid not enclosed in a rigid container. The total pressure, or absolute pressureis thus the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure:.

For example, if your tire gauge reads 34 psi pounds per square inchthen the absolute pressure is 34 psi plus For reasons we will explore later, in most cases the absolute pressure in fluids cannot be negative. Fluids push rather than pull, so the smallest absolute pressure is zero.

A negative absolute pressure is a pull. There are a host of devices for measuring pressure, ranging from tire gauges to blood pressure cuffs.

The undiminished transmission of pressure through a fluid allows precise remote sensing of pressures. Figure shows one of the many types of mechanical pressure gauges in use today. In all mechanical pressure gauges, pressure results in a force that is converted or transduced into some type of readout.

Consider the U-shaped tube shown in Figurefor example. This simple tube is called a manometer. In Figure aboth sides of the tube are open to the atmosphere.UNIT 3. General Objective. Specific Objectives. Figure 3. A Piezometer is used for measuring pressu re inside a vessel or pipe in which. A tube may be attached to the walls of the container or pipe in. It is important that the opening of the device is to. Although the Piezometer tube is a very si mple and accurate pressure measuring device, it has several disadvantages.

It is only suitable if the pressure in the container pipe or vessel is greater th an the atmospheric pressure otherwise air would be sucked into systemand the pressure to be measured must be relatively small so that the required hei ght of column is reasonable.

Also, the fluid in the container in wh ich the pressure is to be measured must be a liquid rather than a gas. Example 3. If the oil rises to a height of 1. Solution to Example 3. We know that. A Barometer is a device used for measuring atmospheric pressure. A simple Barometer consists of a tube of more than 30 inch mm long inserted into an open container of merc ury with a closed and evacuated end at the top and open tube end at the bottom and with mercury extending from the container up into the tube.

Strictly, th e space above the liquid cannot be a true vacuum. It contains mercury vapour at it s saturated vapour pressure, but this is extremely small at room temperatures e. Describe with a sketch, one method of measuring atmospheric pressure. Vacuum zero pressure. Mercury sp. A Mercury Barometer in its simplest form consists of a glass tube, about 1 m long and closed at one end, which is comple tely filled with mercur y and inverted in a bowl of mercury Figure 3.Pressure measuring devices using liquid columns in vertical or inclined tubes are called manometers.

One of the most common is the water filled u-tube manometer used to measure pressure difference in pitot or orifices located in the airflow in air handling or ventilation system. In the figure bellow illustrates the water levels in an u-tube where the left tube is connected to a point with higher pressure than the right tube - example: the left tube may be connected to a pressurized air duct when the right tube is open to the ambient air.

The specific weight of waterwhich is the most commonly used fluid in u-tube manometers, is 9. A water manometer connects the upstream and downstream pressure of an orifice located in an air flow. The difference height in the water column is 10 mm. A common problem when measuring the pressure difference in low velocity systems - or systems with low density fluids - like air ventilation systems - are low column heights and accuracy.

Accuracy can be improved by inclining the u-tube manometer. The figure bellow indicates a u-tube where the left tube is connected to a higher pressure than the right tube. Note that the left and the right tube must in the same declined plane for the angle to the horizontal plane to be correct.

Absolute Pressure vs Gauge Pressure - Fluid Mechanics - Physics Problems

We use the same data as in the example above, except that the U-Tube is inclined 45 o. This calculator can be used to calculate the differential pressure measured with an U-tube manometer. SI Imperial. Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro.

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u tube manometer solved problems pdf

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u tube manometer solved problems pdf

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This applies for as long as the restriction remains active on your account. Violation of this restriction is considered circumvention under our Terms of Service and may result in termination of your account. Google Help. Send feedback on Help Center Community. YouTube Get support.The manometer is a wet meter which means that the fluid whose pressure is being measured is brought in contact with another fluid, for example mercury, which is displaced to indicate the pressure.

Mercury can be used because it has a high density and so the manometer size is minimised. From the conversion table above 1 bar corresponds to 0. Compared to water, a much smaller column of mercury is needed to measure pressure. The common types of manometer are the U-tubethe Well and the Inclined manometer. Signal conditioning on a manometer consists of marking graduations on the glass column corresponding to calibrated pressure readings.

With mercury manometers a range of 1mbar to 1. This manometer is very easily constructed. It consists of a tube of glass bent into a U shape. It is then filled with a fluid. The density of the fluid dictates the range of pressures that can be measured. Both ends of the tube are pressure ports. If one port is left open to the atmosphere and the other port is connected to the pressure to be measured, the device acts as a gauge pressure meter.

If both ports are connected to two different unknown pressures, the instrument acts as a differential pressure gauge. The U-tube manometer is shown opposite.

4 Problems with YouTube and How to Solve Them

The difference in the height of the two columns is due to the fact that p1 is greater than p2. For equilibrium at the datum point at the bottom of the tube the total pressure in each limb must be equal. The pressure in the left limb is due to a the column of measuring fluid e.

The pressure in the right limb is due to a the column of measuring fluid e. Therefore we have as follows:. If the measurand fluid is air then the pressure due to it can be ignored as the term will be very small compared to the other terms. If the measurand fluid is a liquid or some other fluid of significantly high density then it cannot be ignored in the equation.

Assuming that we have air as the measurand fluid the equation above becomes:. Since g is the acceleration due to gravity and is a constant and the fluid density is a constant, the difference in pressure is directly proportional to the difference in the heights of the columns. With some experimental work graduations could be marked on the glass to give a direct pressure reading. Rearranging the above equation gives:. If p 2 is atmospheric pressure then the result for p 1 is an absolute pressure measurement.

If a gauge pressure measurement is sufficient then we can use the following equation:.Differential manometers can range from devices simple enough to be built at home to complex digital equipment. Figure 2. Differential U-tube manometer Fig. Now we have. This type of manometers are used to measure accuracy of small difference if pressure is increased. Figure : Inverted Differential Manometer.

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Standard manometers are used to measure the pressure in a container by comparing it to normal atmospheric pressure. Differential manometers are also used to compare the pressure of two different containers. They reveal both which container has greater pressure and how large the difference between the two is. Differential manometers have a wide range of uses in different disciplines. One example is that they can be used to measure the flow dynamics of a gas by comparing the pressure at different points in the pipe.

The simplest differential manometer is a U-shaped tube with both ends at the same height. A liquid, usually water or mercury, rests at the bottom of the tube.

If one end of the tube is in a place with higher air pressure, the pressure will push down the liquid on that side of the tube. By measuring the difference between the heights of liquid, it is possible to calculate the difference in pressure.

To calculate the difference in pressure, multiply the difference in height by the density of the gas and the acceleration due to gravity. The final units should be in pascals. Heat Transfer Quiz Differential Manometers? What Is a Differential Manometer? Share Manometer Types - The Engineering Concepts. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

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