Dermatoglyphics is the study of dermal ridges. Since dermatoglyphic characters are recognized as a unique individual trait and follow a multifactorial or polygenic pattern of inheritance, it is necessary to understand the variations leading to this pattern. The present paper, through appropriate descriptive approach, has revealed the variation in the pattern of inheritance in the TFRCs of the Dumagat-Remontados from Puray, Rodriguez, Rizal, Philippines.
The study also reported a large discrepancy on the total fingerprint ridge count impact of culture on business pdf the Dumagat-Remontados compared to established researches. Also, the increased heterozygosity due to genetic admixture led to the dominant occurrence of the loop pattern ulnar in the fingerprints of this group of indigenous people as compared to few established data stating that the frequency of whorl patterns dominates the universal population and other Asian racial groups.
In this study, a special feature on the fingerprint patterns of the pure Dumagat-Remontados was reported. Aside from the high frequency of loops and whorls, a distinct club dent, concluded to be a unique feature found among this tribal population, was noted from at least one of the fingers of the majority of the pure sample. Dermatoglyphics is a field that has attracted a great number of scientists from across genetics, medicine, and anthropology to explore links on genetically determined diseases.
Moreover, for many years, fingerprints were used as a means of identification and authentication based on their individual peculiarities and uniqueness. According to Ismail et al. They are individual-specific and are highly heritable [ 2 ], and as such, they are noted to play a major role in medical and genetic studies of human biology research as well as population studies. In the medical field, these traits are used in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities [ 3 ], while in genetic studies they are used as an easily applied and inexpensive tool for estimating the genetic distances between populations [ 2 ].
Dermatoglyphic study is comprised of two main aspects: patterns and total fingerprint ridge counts TFRCs. Patterns are primarily due to the convoluted layers of cells of the epidermis wherein the peaks of the ridges are the locations of the pores of the sweat glands. Figure 1 shows the structure of the fingerprint highlighting the delta or the triradius and the core which establishes the total fingerprint ridge count TFRC.
TFRC is the summation of the ridge counts from the fingers of both hands. Fogle [ 5 ] mentioned in his study that fingerprints are formed during embryonic development and the patterns remain unchanged during postnatal development.
However, extensive physical labor can wear down ridges and that suzuki jimny 4 inch lift kit can distort the patterns. Ridge depth is influenced by age such that both young children and older adults have thinner ridges.
Human fingerprint is characterized by various types of ridge patterns classified as an arch, a loop, or a whorl—each has a unique characteristic with respect to a reference point called a triradius. The arch is the polar addition calculator frequent pattern and is subdivided into either plain or tented arch consisting of at least one upthrusting ridge, which tends to bisect superior ridges at right angles.
The loop pattern is more complicated classified as either ulnar with a triradius that is on the side of the thumb, with the loop opening towards the pinky finger or radial with a triradius that is on the side of the pinky finger, with the loop opening towards the thumb. The whorl has two triradii and has four types: plain whorl, central pocket whorl, double-loop whorl, and the superwhorl. According to Holt [ 6 ], a ridge count is the number of ridges intervening between the triradius and the core or center which cuts or touches a straight line joining these two points in a finger.
Each of the patterns has a unique method of obtaining the TRCs such that arch patterns have zero ridge count, loop pattern ridge count is obtained by counting the number of ridges between the triradius and the center or core of the pattern, and whorl pattern ridge count is made from each triradius to the center of the fingerprint and the higher of the two possible counts is recorded.
Summing all the ridge counts for each of the ten fingers makes up the total fingerprint ridge counts. Ridge count is related to two different timed events: the timing of the onset of volar pad regression versus the timing of the onset of primary ridge formation [ 7 ].
For example, if ridges did not start to form until the pad was in a more regressed state, less ridges would form, which would lower the ridge count [ 7 ].Piolo, a child with coffee-colored skin and the curliest hair I have ever seen, handed me a wild rambutansmiled shyly up at me, and joined the other children.
They and a few adults ate the tart red fruit while sitting outside a makeshift home from wood. Others also sat outside their homes, seemingly content, while some kids ran around. Far behind them was the majestic Sierra Madre mountain range. A steady and sustainable income is hard to come by for the Dumagat community here at Sitio Inipit, Barangay Simbahan, Dinalungan, in Aurora province. Also, before, kids had a hard time going to and staying in school because their families could not afford it.
This is not mentioning the problems Dumagats face in general, among them people trying to take their land, and discrimination because of their skin color and features. Mylen, a Dumagat at Sitio Inipit and a teacher who used to work in a school on another municipality, took the initiative to empower her community through education. By chance more than five years ago, she met yogi Alfonso Vieja, more known as Dada elder brother Atma soul in the Ananda Marga tradition, where he is a yoga teacher.
Dada Atma, in his own way — especially through his own resources, his friends and fundraisers — has been helping Dumagats in Aurora ever since he lived with one community for a week when he got stranded by a typhoon in Quirino municipality. He also had a day care center built and promptly sent Ms. Mylen back to her community to teach there.
Dada supported around 60 kids. Mylen leftthe determined teacher who dared ask Dada Atma for help for Dumagat kids and got it. That afternoon at Sitio Inipit, Dada came to distribute clothes, school supplies and other necessities either donated by friends or bought by money from fundraisers.
With Dada, our group carried boxes and bags and braved over ten hours of commute from Manila, many of them bumpy and dusty, on the dirt roads en route to Dinalungan. She is also Ms. Clearly, feistiness runs in their family. She also regularly visits different Dumagat communities around Aurora to check with them and advise them. When discussing land issues and poverty in her community, Nanang Maring gets pretty serious left. On the other hand, she gets excited when talking about solutions right.
Aside from Sitio Inipit, we also traveled by boat for more than 30 minutes to Sitio Disigisaw, Barangay San Ildefonso, at Casiguran municipality, where Nanang Maring lived for several years. Here, the education is more informal. Only one teacher is responsible for all grade levels at the moment. This may be because while Casiguran is generally accessible by land, Sitio Disigisaw is a remote area, separated by mountains from the town proper.
It does not help that the sitio is quite big, either. We took another minute boat ride to reach the other community. The ten students here have to walk around three or four kilometers to go to school on the other side of the sitio. Meanwhile, the Dumagats who buy staples like rice at Casiguran town proper walk and climb mountains for at least eight hours to get there.
This is a cheaper and more practical option for them, especially when the waves en route to Dinalungan where our boat came from get rough.Carrying empty pails and water gallons, the Dumagats, led by Marcelino Tena, call on the government to stop the project as it would affect thousands of lives and would destroy the serenity of the Sierra Madre mountain range. The group argued that aside from losing their livelihood, the project would pose great danger to the environment as it would increase the risk of flooding and landslide in addition to the damaging effects of global warming.
The indigenous group also denounced the idea that the project is the only solution to the recurring water crisis because the water level in Angat Dam, the main source of water in Metro Manila, remains normal.
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Sex Bait 14 min Callgirlmadurai - 6.Vic is one of people from Casiguran, north of the Philippines, marching across the country to protest a controversial land development created by a powerful political dynasty.
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The development promises to bring economic progress with resorts, an airport and factories. Construction has begun, destroying ricelands and displacing fisherfolk. If the development carries through to completion Vic and his tribe will be one of 3, families stripped of their land and livelihood.
I first stumbled upon this story four years ago. My husband, a human rights lawyer, told me about a remote village in Casiguran, Aurora province where farmers, fishers and indigenous peoples needed legal help. APECO covers 12, hectares and would build an airport, a seaport, resorts and factories.
It promised jobs and progress in the once sleepy town of Casiguran. But the project was mired in controversy. Her student film, Life on the Trackswas an intimate portrait of a couple who live in the slums of Manila.
She is currently based in Manila, working on several feature-length documentaries. Pabelle Manikan is a documentary filmmaker based in Manila, Philippines.
After college, she was involved in making documentaries on Philippine socio-political and cultural traditions. Currentlyshe works as a full time documentary film editor and does freelance jobs as a director and director of photography.
But we feel this progress is not for us," said Vic, a Dumagat, an indigenous group who have lived there since the s. They subsist on hunting, gathering and fishing and need vast forests and coasts to survive. Vic puts on a broken pair of eyeglasses and shows us APECO's plan to build resorts where they live and a big port where they fish. Joefran Talaban, the town's parish priest, is the most vocal critic of the project. It promotes a wrong kind of progress where the indigenous people, fishers and farmers are not consulted, he says".
Under the Philippine constitution and the indigenous people's rights law, no project, can enter ancestral lands or waters without the free, prior and informed consent of the community. Villagers protested that they were never consulted about the project. Fishing families who lived by the sea had to tear down their homes to make way for an airport.
Even the town mayor complained that he and other officials were not consulted, a violation of local government laws. It was going to be a difficult fight for Vic and other oppositors to APECO as they exhausted all means to fight for their land - dialogues, congressional and senate hearings and protest marches over a period of four years. After a gruelling km protest march to Manila, Vic meets the president of the Philippines, looks him in the eye and tells him: "We also want progress, but our idea of progress is different from your idea of progress.
I asked Vic where he found the courage to speak to the president like that and he said: "We walked for 17 days to tell the president what we felt. So I did.
The March to Progress in the Philippines
Vic was not a tribal chief.Living on mountain top, Dumagats finally connected to world of letters Published Updated. The way was treacherous on a rainy day, the road splattered with thick and slippery mud.
But the same road leads you through steep hills to a breathtaking view of mountain sides wrapped in morning fog. The rivers remained calm as the rain dropped slowly, posing no threat of swelling water. And in that part where the water was deep, the hanging bridge, though old and worn, still proved friendly. It was a long four-hour walk before reaching Sitio Pagtilao, on the peak of a mountain known to be the farthest point in the village of Calawis in Antipolo City.
‘Kaliwa Dam project will destroy us, our homes’ —Dumagat tribe
Young and old Dumagats attend class together. Photos by Claire Delfin. Dumagat elder Domingo Cruz attends class with young children. A Dumagat mother carries her baby while attending class and learning the alphabets. Fuel price hike seen next week —Unioil.
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Dermatoglyphic Studies among the Dumagat-Remontado Tribal Population of the Philippines
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